Key laws and policies
Republic of Albania the Assembly Law Nr. 8876 Dated 4 April 2002 On Reproductive Health (Citation: Law on Reproductive Health, 04 April 2002 available at http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/199400/303827_en.html, accessed 21 February 2015.)
Art. 2 of this law defines “reproductive health” as “people’s ability to reproduce and the freedom to decide the manner and timing of reproduction,” and gives to each individual (not only to marital couples) the opportunity to choose the methods of reproduction.
- Surrogacy appears to be practiced.
Specific law was unable to be identified.
- Article 38: The human embryo is prohibited from being used for any other kind of commercial, industrial, or experimental purpose.
Permitted and regulated practices
Albanian legislation provides the possibility for a married couple or an individual to undertake artificial reproduction based on infertility. The law recognizes artificial insemination and in vitro fertilization.
Article 32 provides that assisted reproduction may be used:
- When an individual has reached the age to marry
- When the spouses have failed in attempts to have a child for a period of two years up to the moment when the transfer of the embryo and insemination is performed
- In the presence of a licensed specialist doctor
- Only after the written consent has been received for each cycle by the interested individuals
The techniques of reproduction are to be used only in the cases when:
- Other methods of treatment of the infertility of the man or the woman are not productive or appropriate and do not guarantee the desired result
- They prevent the transmission to the child of genetic illnesses, or other illnesses that would produce premature death, mental retardation or serious invalidity
- They are considered as an alternative to a natural birth
Access to Information
- The practice in Albania is to maintain anonymity of donors. Art. 14 of the “Reproductive Health” law imposes an obligation on medical services to preserve the confidentiality and the anonymity of data.
- While donor anonymity is not explicitly guaranteed by law, the interpretation of Art. 14 has been to include preserving the confidentiality and anonymity of the donor’s identity.
- Not mentioned in statute (IFFS, Surveillance, 2010)
Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis
- Not practiced in current clinics (due to unavailability of laboratory facilities)
Clinics (of which there are three) offer treatments including:
- Donor insemination
- Egg donation
- Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)
- In vitro fertilization (IVF)
- In vitro fertilization (IVF) with egg donation
- Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
- Intrauterine insemination (IUI) stimulated
- Intrauterine insemination (IUI) unstimulated
- Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT)
- PGD (although note above that it is reported that this is not practiced due to lab limitations)
IFFS, Surveillance, 2010(Note: Albania did not answer IFFS Surveillance 2013.)