China

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China
China-flag.gif
Information
Region Asia
Population 1,321,851,888
GDP (millions USD) 3,250,827
National Policies
Eggs for assisted reproduction commercial prohibited
Eggs for research commercial prohibited
Inheritable genetic modification ?
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis social uses prohibited
Reproductive cloning PROHIBITED
Research cloning regulated
Sex selection "social uses prohibited" is not in the list of possible values (?, PROHIBITED, regulated, Social uses prohibited, no policy) for this property.
Surrogacy PROHIBITED
International Agreements
1997 COE Biomedicine Convention not signed
1998 COE Cloning Convention not signed
2005 UN Cloning Vote no
2005 UNESCO Sports Doping Convention RATIFIED


Contents

Key laws and policies

  • Ethical Guidelines on Human Embryonic Stem Cell (January 2004)
  • Measures on the Regulation of Human Supplemental Reproduction Technologies, Ministry of Health Order No. 14 (2001)
  • Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance, Section 15 (June 2000)

Prohibited practices

Reproductive cloning is prohibited by the Ethical Guidelines on Human Embryonic Stem Cell and the Regulation on Human Assisted Reproductive Technologies.[1]

Research cloning is specifically allowed.[2]

Sex selection is prohibited[3] but a wide imbalance in the sex ratio at birth, especially in certain affluent provinces, demonstrates that it occurs.[4] Wealthy Chinese are reported to travel to the US and elsewhere to evade restrictions on the use of PGD.[5]

Surrogacy is prohibited.[6] However, some surrogacy - including commercial surrogacy - occurs.[7][8]

There is a general prohibition against the sale of gametes, including eggs.[3][9]

In Hong Kong, however, which is partially autonomous, both surrogacy and compensation for providing eggs (for reproduction and for research) are allowed.[10][9]


History

The Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance of 200 appears to have prohibited research cloning, stating that "No person shall... for the purposes of embryo research":

  • bring about the creation of an embryo
  • replace the nucleus of a cell of an embryo with a nucleus taken from any other cell
  • clone any embryo.

Recent policy changes appear to override this ordinance.

References

  1. Genetics and Public Policy Center, "Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance (China)"
  2. Jia Hepend, "China supports therapeutic cloning," China Daily, March 31, 2005
  3. 3.0 3.1 Genetics and Public Policy Center, "Reproductive Genetic Testing (China)"
  4. Ted Plafker, "Sex selection in China sees 117 boys born for every 100 girls," BMJ 2002;324:1233 (25 May)
  5. "Wealthy go to US to choose baby's sex," AP, June 15, 2006
  6. Rachel Cook, Shelley Day Sclater, and Felicity Kaganas, Surrogate Motherhood: International Perspectives, Hart Publishing (2003) p. 2
  7. Kari Points, "Strategies for Protecting the Health and Human Rights of Surrogates in India: A Multicountry Legislative Analysis," Master's Thesis, The Sanford Institute of Public Policy , Duke University (2009)
  8. James Pomfret, "Forced abortions shake up China wombs-for-rent industry, Reuters (April 30th, 2009)
  9. 9.0 9.1 American Society for Reproductive Medicine, "IFFS Surveillance 07," Fertility and Sterility (Vol. 87. No. 4, Suppl. 1, April 2007)
  10. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Sing