Council of Europe

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The Council of Europe is an international organization of 47 member countries working to foster democracy and human rights. The Council maintains a Bioethics Division within its Legal Affairs field, guided by a Steering Committee on Bioethics.

The Council’s Convention on Biomedicine and Human Rights was opened for signatures in 1997 and went into force in 1998. It explicitly prohibits inheritable genetic modification, somatic genetic modification for enhancement purposes, social sex selection, and the creation of human embryos solely for research purposes.

Human reproductive cloning was banned by an Additional Protocol on the Prohibition of Cloning Human Beings. It was opened for signatures in 1998 and went into force that same year.

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The Table shows the status of the 1997 Biomedicine Convention and the 1998 Additional Protocol on Human Cloning for each member state.

You can click the icon in any column heading to sort by that column. To sort the other direction, click it again.


  • RATIFIED: This country has ratified this measure, and thus agrees to abide by its provisions.
  • signed: This country has signed this measure, indicating an intent to ratify it.
  • blank cell: This country has neither signed nor ratified this measure.

You can click the icon in any column heading to sort by that column. To sort the other direction, click it again.

  Population 1997 COE Biomedicine Convention 1998 COE Cloning Convention
Albania 3,600,523
Andorra 71,822
Armenia 3,229,900
Austria 8,316,487
Azerbaijan 8,653,000
Belgium 10,584,534
Bosnia and Herzegovina 3,981,239 RATIFIED
Bulgaria 7,933,000 RATIFIED RATIFIED
Croatia 4,453,500 RATIFIED RATIFIED
Czech Republic 10,381,130 RATIFIED RATIFIED
Denmark 5,475,791 RATIFIED signed
Estonia 1,340,602 RATIFIED RATIFIED
Finland 5,308,208 signed signed
France 64,473,140 signed signed
Georgia 4,661,473 RATIFIED RATIFIED
Germany 82,210,000
Greece 11,216,708 RATIFIED RATIFIED
Hungary 10,053,000 RATIFIED RATIFIED
Ireland 6,000,000
Italy 59,448,163 signed signed
Latvia 2,270,700 signed signed
Liechtenstein 35,365
Lithuania 3,369,600 RATIFIED RATIFIED
Luxembourg 480,222 signed signed
Macedonia 2,038,514 signed signed
Malta 402,000
Moldova 4,128,047 RATIFIED RATIFIED
Monaco 32,671
Montenegro 684,736 signed
Netherlands 16,408,557 signed signed
Norway 4,752,735 RATIFIED signed
Poland 38,518,241 signed signed
Portugal 10,848,692 RATIFIED RATIFIED
Romania 22,246,862 RATIFIED RATIFIED
Russia 142,008,838
San Marino 29,615 RATIFIED signed
Serbia 10,150,265 signed
Slovakia 5,447,502 RATIFIED RATIFIED
Slovenia 2,023,358 RATIFIED RATIFIED
Spain 45,200,737 RATIFIED RATIFIED
Sweden 9,182,927 signed signed
Switzerland 7,591,400 signed signed
Turkey 70,586,256 RATIFIED signed
Ukraine 46,372,700 signed signed
United Kingdom 60,587,300