Europe

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43 countries are located in Europe.

Table 1: Practices and technologies

Key

  • PROHIBITED: This practice is prohibited by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • regulated: This practice is allowed and regulated by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • permitted: This practice is allowed by national law or policies having the force of law, but is not regulated.
  • allowed: This practice is allowed by national law or policies having the force of law, but social uses are not prohibited.
  • social uses prohibited: Social (or nonmedical) use of this practice is prohibited by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • commercial prohibited: Commercial use of this practice is prohibited by national law or policies having the force of law, but non-commercial use is allowed.
  • commercial allowed: Commercial use of this practice is allowed by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • permitted: This practice is allowed by national law or policies having the force of law, but policies concerning compensation are unknown.
  • unrecognized: Surrogacy contracts are explicitly unrecognized by national law or by other mechanism which carries the force of law.
  • no policy: This practice is not addressed by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • ?: It is unknown whether this practice is addressed by national law or policies having the force of law.


Note: The categories defined in the key and used in the table characterize the polices in any given country in a broad manner. Consult the page for each country for more detailed accounts of current policies.
 

You can click the icon in any column heading to sort by that column. To sort the other direction, click it again.

  Population Eggs for assisted reproduction Eggs for research Inheritable genetic modification Preimplantation genetic diagnosis Reproductive cloning Research cloning Sex selection Surrogacy
Albania 3,600,523 ? ? ? ? PROHIBITED PROHIBITED ? PROHIBITED
Andorra 71,822 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? no policy
Austria 8,316,487 PROHIBITED PROHIBITED PROHIBITED PROHIBITED PROHIBITED PROHIBITED PROHIBITED PROHIBITED
Belarus 9,689,800 permitted permitted PROHIBITED social uses prohibited ? ? Social uses prohibited commercial prohibited
Belgium 10,584,534 commercial prohibited commercial prohibited PROHIBITED social uses prohibited PROHIBITED regulated ? commercial prohibited
Bosnia and Herzegovina 3,981,239 ? ? PROHIBITED social uses prohibited ? PROHIBITED ? no policy
Bulgaria 7,933,000 commercial prohibited permitted PROHIBITED social uses prohibited PROHIBITED PROHIBITED Social uses prohibited commercial prohibited
Croatia 4,453,500 permitted no policy PROHIBITED social uses prohibited PROHIBITED PROHIBITED Social uses prohibited PROHIBITED
Czech Republic 10,381,130 commercial prohibited ? PROHIBITED social uses prohibited PROHIBITED PROHIBITED ? commercial prohibited
Denmark 5,475,791 commercial allowed permitted PROHIBITED social uses prohibited PROHIBITED PROHIBITED Social uses prohibited commercial prohibited
Estonia 1,340,602 commercial prohibited commercial prohibited PROHIBITED social uses prohibited PROHIBITED PROHIBITED ? no policy
Finland 5,308,208 commercial prohibited commercial prohibited PROHIBITED social uses prohibited PROHIBITED regulated Social uses prohibited PROHIBITED
France 64,473,140 commercial allowed commercial prohibited PROHIBITED social uses prohibited PROHIBITED PROHIBITED Social uses prohibited PROHIBITED
Germany 82,210,000 PROHIBITED ? PROHIBITED social uses prohibited PROHIBITED PROHIBITED Social uses prohibited PROHIBITED
Greece 11,216,708 commercial prohibited commercial prohibited PROHIBITED social uses prohibited PROHIBITED PROHIBITED Social uses prohibited commercial prohibited
Hungary 10,053,000 commercial allowed commercial allowed PROHIBITED social uses prohibited PROHIBITED PROHIBITED Social uses prohibited commercial prohibited
Iceland 316,252 permitted permitted PROHIBITED social uses prohibited PROHIBITED PROHIBITED ? PROHIBITED
Ireland 6,000,000 commercial prohibited ? ? ? PROHIBITED PROHIBITED ? commercial prohibited
Italy 59,448,163 PROHIBITED PROHIBITED PROHIBITED social uses prohibited PROHIBITED PROHIBITED ? PROHIBITED
Latvia 2,270,700 permitted permitted ? social uses prohibited PROHIBITED PROHIBITED Social uses prohibited commercial prohibited
Liechtenstein 35,365 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? permitted
Lithuania 3,369,600 PROHIBITED ? PROHIBITED PROHIBITED PROHIBITED PROHIBITED ? commercial prohibited
Luxembourg 480,222 ? ? ? ? PROHIBITED PROHIBITED ? no policy
Macedonia 2,038,514 permitted ? ? ? ? ? Social uses prohibited unrecognized
Malta 402,000 ? PROHIBITED PROHIBITED ? PROHIBITED PROHIBITED PROHIBITED PROHIBITED
Moldova 4,128,047 ? ? PROHIBITED social uses prohibited PROHIBITED PROHIBITED ? PROHIBITED
Monaco 32,671 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Montenegro 684,736 commercial prohibited ? ? social uses prohibited PROHIBITED PROHIBITED Social uses prohibited PROHIBITED
Netherlands 16,408,557 commercial prohibited commercial prohibited PROHIBITED social uses prohibited PROHIBITED PROHIBITED Social uses prohibited commercial prohibited
Norway 4,752,735 PROHIBITED PROHIBITED PROHIBITED social uses prohibited PROHIBITED PROHIBITED Social uses prohibited PROHIBITED
Poland 38,518,241 ? ? PROHIBITED ? PROHIBITED PROHIBITED ? PROHIBITED
Portugal 10,848,692 permitted ? PROHIBITED social uses prohibited PROHIBITED PROHIBITED ? PROHIBITED
Romania 22,246,862 commercial prohibited ? PROHIBITED social uses prohibited PROHIBITED PROHIBITED PROHIBITED no policy
Russia 142,008,838 commercial allowed commercial allowed ? social uses prohibited PROHIBITED PROHIBITED Social uses prohibited commercial allowed
San Marino 29,615 ? ? PROHIBITED social uses prohibited ? PROHIBITED ? ?
Serbia 10,150,265 permitted ? ? ? ? ? ? PROHIBITED
Slovakia 5,447,502 permitted ? PROHIBITED social uses prohibited PROHIBITED PROHIBITED ? no policy
Slovenia 2,023,358 commercial prohibited ? PROHIBITED social uses prohibited PROHIBITED PROHIBITED ? PROHIBITED
Spain 45,200,737 commercial prohibited commercial allowed PROHIBITED social uses prohibited PROHIBITED regulated ? PROHIBITED
Sweden 9,182,927 commercial prohibited permitted PROHIBITED social uses prohibited PROHIBITED regulated Social uses prohibited PROHIBITED
Switzerland 7,591,400 PROHIBITED ? PROHIBITED PROHIBITED PROHIBITED PROHIBITED PROHIBITED PROHIBITED
Ukraine 46,372,700 permitted ? ? ? PROHIBITED ? ? commercial allowed
United Kingdom 60,587,300 commercial prohibited commercial prohibited PROHIBITED social uses prohibited PROHIBITED regulated Social uses prohibited commercial prohibited

Table 2: International agreements, UN cloning vote

Key

  • RATIFIED: This country has ratified this measure, and thus agrees to abide by its provisions.
  • signed: This country has signed this measure, indicating an intent to ratify it.
  • n/a: This country is not a member of the intergovernmental organization responsible for this item.
  • blank cell: This country has neither signed nor ratified this measure.


  • YES: This country voted in favor of the Declaration, indicating support for a ban on both reproductive and research cloning.
  • no: This country voted against the Declaration, indicating support for a ban on reproductive cloning only.
  • abstain: This country took an official position of abstaining from voting on the Declaration.
  • no vote: This country’s delegate was absent at the time of the vote, or otherwise refrained from voting.


You can click the icon in any column heading to sort by that column. To sort the other direction, click it again.


  Population 1997 COE Biomedicine Convention 1998 COE Cloning Convention 2005 UN Cloning Vote 2005 UNESCO Sports Doping Convention 2007 Treaty of Lisbon
Albania 3,600,523 YES RATIFIED n/a
Andorra 71,822 YES n/a
Austria 8,316,487 YES RATIFIED RATIFIED
Belarus 9,689,800 no
Belgium 10,584,534 no RATIFIED signed
Bosnia and Herzegovina 3,981,239 RATIFIED YES n/a
Bulgaria 7,933,000 RATIFIED RATIFIED no RATIFIED RATIFIED
Croatia 4,453,500 RATIFIED RATIFIED YES RATIFIED
Czech Republic 10,381,130 RATIFIED RATIFIED no RATIFIED signed
Denmark 5,475,791 RATIFIED signed no RATIFIED RATIFIED
Estonia 1,340,602 RATIFIED RATIFIED no RATIFIED signed
Finland 5,308,208 signed signed no RATIFIED signed
France 64,473,140 signed signed no RATIFIED RATIFIED
Germany 82,210,000 YES RATIFIED RATIFIED
Greece 11,216,708 RATIFIED RATIFIED no vote RATIFIED signed
Hungary 10,053,000 RATIFIED RATIFIED YES RATIFIED RATIFIED
Iceland 316,252 RATIFIED RATIFIED no RATIFIED
Ireland 6,000,000 YES RATIFIED signed
Italy 59,448,163 signed signed YES RATIFIED signed
Latvia 2,270,700 signed signed no RATIFIED RATIFIED
Liechtenstein 35,365 YES
Lithuania 3,369,600 RATIFIED RATIFIED no RATIFIED RATIFIED
Luxembourg 480,222 signed signed no RATIFIED signed
Macedonia 2,038,514 signed signed YES
Malta 402,000 YES RATIFIED
Moldova 4,128,047 RATIFIED RATIFIED abstained RATIFIED
Monaco 32,671 YES RATIFIED n/a
Montenegro 684,736 signed n/a
Netherlands 16,408,557 signed signed no RATIFIED signed
Norway 4,752,735 RATIFIED signed no RATIFIED n/a
Poland 38,518,241 signed signed YES RATIFIED RATIFIED
Portugal 10,848,692 RATIFIED RATIFIED YES RATIFIED RATIFIED
Romania 22,246,862 RATIFIED RATIFIED abstained RATIFIED RATIFIED
Russia 142,008,838 no vote RATIFIED n/a
San Marino 29,615 RATIFIED signed YES n/a
Serbia 10,150,265 signed abstained n/a
Slovakia 5,447,502 RATIFIED RATIFIED YES RATIFIED RATIFIED
Slovenia 2,023,358 RATIFIED RATIFIED YES RATIFIED
Spain 45,200,737 RATIFIED RATIFIED no RATIFIED signed
Sweden 9,182,927 signed signed no RATIFIED signed
Switzerland 7,591,400 signed signed YES
Ukraine 46,372,700 signed signed abstained RATIFIED n/a
United Kingdom 60,587,300 no RATIFIED signed