Difference between revisions of "Ireland"

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|Population=6000000
 
|Population=6000000
 
|GDP=258,574
 
|GDP=258,574
|Eggs for assisted reproduction=?
+
|Eggs for assisted reproduction=commercial prohibited
 
|Eggs for research=?
 
|Eggs for research=?
 
|Inheritable genetic modification=?
 
|Inheritable genetic modification=?
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|Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development=Member
 
|Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development=Member
 
|Council of Europe=Member
 
|Council of Europe=Member
 +
|1997 COE Biomedicine Convention=
 +
|1998 COE Cloning Convention=
 
|2005 UN Cloning Vote=YES
 
|2005 UN Cloning Vote=YES
 
|2005 UNESCO Sports Doping Convention=RATIFIED
 
|2005 UNESCO Sports Doping Convention=RATIFIED
 
|Treaty of Lisbon=signed
 
|Treaty of Lisbon=signed
|Key laws and policies=* [http://193.178.1.117/upload/publications/297.pdf Constitution of Ireland]
+
|Introduction=
* Medical Council, ''[http://www.medicalcouncil.ie/_fileupload/standards/Ethical_Guide_6th_Edition.pdf A Guide to Ethical Conduct and Behaviour],'' 6th ed (March 2004)
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|Key laws and policies=* [http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/en/constitution/ Constitution of Ireland]
|Foundational values=The Constitution (Article 40, Section 3.3) "acknowledges the right to life of the unborn ... with due regard to the equal right to life of the mother" but the legal interpretation of this is disputed.<ref name=CAHR>[http://www.dohc.ie/publications/pdf/cahr.pdf?direct=1 Report of the Commission on Assisted Human Reproduction] (2005)</ref><ref name=madden>Deirdre Madden, "[http://www.ccels.cf.ac.uk/archives/publications/2004/maddenpaper.pdf Assisted Reproduction in the Republic of Ireland – a Legal Quagmire]" (July 2004)</ref> A common view is that the "unborn" include all in vitro embryos and that the consititution therefore prohibits all embryonic research and all forms of cloning. However, a 2006 court opinion, which as of April, 2008, was on appeal to the Supreme Court, suggested that "unborn" meant "a foetus or child within the womb."<ref name=icb>Irish Council for Bioethics, ''[http://www.bioethics.ie/pdfs/StemCellReport.pdf Ethical, Scientific and Legal Isues Concerning Stem Cell Research]'' (April, 2008)</ref>
+
|Prohibited practices="The Irish government has stated its opposition to cloning, both therapeutic and reproductive, on a number of occasions and therefore it is thought unlikely that the legal position on this issue will change in the near future."<ref name=madden/> Arguably, cloning is not prohibited by law but certainly it is in practice.
+
|Permitted and regulated practices=It is often stated that PGD is prohibited, and it seems not to be practiced, but also not to be specifically illegal. The use of IVF is discouraged by the Medical Council guidelines, and only available to married couples with untreatable infertility. Further legislation has been expected for some years.<ref name=exam>"[http://archives.tcm.ie/irishexaminer/2007/07/25/story38124.asp Death of a woman who yearned for children highlights poor practices]," ''Irish Examiner'' (July 25, 2007)</ref>
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|History=A Commission on Assisted Human Reproduction was established by the government in 2000, and issued its [http://www.dohc.ie/publications/pdf/cahr.pdf?direct=1 report] in March, 2005 but legislation has not followed. The Report's recommendations included prohibitions on reproductive cloning, the creation of embryos for research purposes, sex selection for social reasons and the generation and use of interspecies human embryos.
+
  
The Irish Council for Bioethics issued a Report on Stem Cell Research in April, 2008, which also called for widespread legislative reform.<ref name=icb/>
+
Note there are:
  
The Medical Council's ''Guide to Ethical Conduct and Behaviour'' is updated every five years and therefore due for revision in March, 2009.<ref name=madden/>
+
* No specific laws governing assisted reproduction or surrogacy in the Republic of Ireland
 +
 
 +
* Non-binding guidelines: [http://www.medicalcouncil.ie/News-and-Publications/Publications/Professional-Conduct-Ethics/Guide-to-Professional-Conduct-and-Behaviour-for-Registered-Medical-Practitioners-pdf.pdf The Guide to Professional Conduct & Ethics for Registered Medical Practitioners, 2009].
 +
 
 +
In December 2014, it was said that the Minister for Justice and Equality plans to bring legislative proposals to Government in relation to assignment of parentage in cases of ART, including surrogacy. Regulation regarding assisted reproduction generally is also being considered (and called for by the Supreme Court). However to date nothing has been forthcoming.
 +
|Foundational values=The Constitution (Article 40, Section 3.3) "acknowledges the right to life of the unborn…with due regard to the equal right to life of the mother," but the legal interpretation of this is disputed.
 +
 
 +
A common view is that the "unborn" includes all in vitro embryos and that the constitution therefore prohibits all embryonic research and all forms of cloning. However, a 2006 court opinion, which as of April 2008 was on appeal to the Supreme Court, suggested that "unborn" meant "a foetus or child within the womb."<ref name=icb>Irish Council for Bioethics, ''[http://health.gov.ie/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Ethical_Scientific_Legal_Issues1.pdf Ethical, Scientific and Legal Issues Concerning Stem Cell Research]'' (April, 2008).</ref>
 +
|Prohibited practices='''Human Cloning'''
 +
 
 +
"The Irish government has stated its opposition to cloning, both therapeutic and reproductive, on a number of occasions and therefore it is thought unlikely that the legal position on this issue will change in the near future."<ref>Gunning, Jennifer and Søren Holm. ''Ethics, Law and Society, Volume 2''. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.: 2006</ref> Arguably, cloning is not prohibited by law but certainly it is in practice.
 +
|Permitted and regulated practices='''Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis'''
 +
 
 +
* It is often stated that PGD is prohibited, and it seems not to be practiced, but also not to be specifically illegal.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
'''Access/Use of Assisted Reproduction'''
 +
 
 +
The guidelines provide that assisted human reproduction treatments, such as IVF:
 +
*Should only be used after thorough investigation has shown that no other treatment is likely to be effective
 +
*Should only be provided by suitably qualified professionals, in appropriate facilities, and according to international best practice.
 +
 
 +
They also state regarding donor programs that if clinicians "offer donor programs to patients, [they] must consider the biological difficulties involved and pay particular attention to the source of the donated material. Such donations should be altruistic and non-commercial." They also require that accurate records be kept for future reference.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
'''Legal Parentage'''
 +
 
 +
Male sperm donors may be considered to be fathers. There is case law to this effect (McD v L [2007] IESC 81 or [2009] IESC 81).
 +
 
 +
There is no ban on same-sex couples accessing ART services, but only the genetic father or the birth mother may be recognized as the child's parent.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
'''Surrogacy'''
 +
 
 +
There are no laws currently regulating surrogacy arrangements.
 +
|Regulatory activities=
 +
|Accountability and governance=
 +
|History=
 +
|External links=
 
}}
 
}}
 
== References ==
 
== References ==
 
<references/>
 
<references/>

Latest revision as of 13:05, 13 August 2015

Ireland
Irish flag.jpg
Information
Region Europe
Population 6000000
GDP (millions USD) 258,574
National Policies
Eggs for assisted reproduction commercial prohibited
Eggs for research ?
Inheritable genetic modification ?
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis ?
Reproductive cloning PROHIBITED
Research cloning PROHIBITED
Sex selection ?
Surrogacy commercial prohibited
International Agreements
1997 COE Biomedicine Convention not signed
1998 COE Cloning Convention not signed
2005 UN Cloning Vote YES
2005 UNESCO Sports Doping Convention RATIFIED
2007 Treaty of Lisbon signed


Contents

Key laws and policies

Note there are:

  • No specific laws governing assisted reproduction or surrogacy in the Republic of Ireland

In December 2014, it was said that the Minister for Justice and Equality plans to bring legislative proposals to Government in relation to assignment of parentage in cases of ART, including surrogacy. Regulation regarding assisted reproduction generally is also being considered (and called for by the Supreme Court). However to date nothing has been forthcoming.

Foundational values

The Constitution (Article 40, Section 3.3) "acknowledges the right to life of the unborn…with due regard to the equal right to life of the mother," but the legal interpretation of this is disputed.

A common view is that the "unborn" includes all in vitro embryos and that the constitution therefore prohibits all embryonic research and all forms of cloning. However, a 2006 court opinion, which as of April 2008 was on appeal to the Supreme Court, suggested that "unborn" meant "a foetus or child within the womb."[1]

Prohibited practices

Human Cloning

"The Irish government has stated its opposition to cloning, both therapeutic and reproductive, on a number of occasions and therefore it is thought unlikely that the legal position on this issue will change in the near future."[2] Arguably, cloning is not prohibited by law but certainly it is in practice.

Permitted and regulated practices

Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis

  • It is often stated that PGD is prohibited, and it seems not to be practiced, but also not to be specifically illegal.


Access/Use of Assisted Reproduction

The guidelines provide that assisted human reproduction treatments, such as IVF:

  • Should only be used after thorough investigation has shown that no other treatment is likely to be effective
  • Should only be provided by suitably qualified professionals, in appropriate facilities, and according to international best practice.

They also state regarding donor programs that if clinicians "offer donor programs to patients, [they] must consider the biological difficulties involved and pay particular attention to the source of the donated material. Such donations should be altruistic and non-commercial." They also require that accurate records be kept for future reference.


Legal Parentage

Male sperm donors may be considered to be fathers. There is case law to this effect (McD v L [2007] IESC 81 or [2009] IESC 81).

There is no ban on same-sex couples accessing ART services, but only the genetic father or the birth mother may be recognized as the child's parent.


Surrogacy

There are no laws currently regulating surrogacy arrangements.

[edit] References

  1. Irish Council for Bioethics, Ethical, Scientific and Legal Issues Concerning Stem Cell Research (April, 2008).
  2. Gunning, Jennifer and Søren Holm. Ethics, Law and Society, Volume 2. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.: 2006