Key laws and policies
- Law Concerning Regulation Relating to Human Cloning Techniques and Other Similar Techniques (June 2001)
The preamble to the 2001 cloning law speaks about "preservation of human dignity, safety for human life and body, and maintenance of social order."
The 2001 cloning law prohibits
- Human reproductive cloning
- Inheritable genetic modification
- The transfer of "a human-animal amphimictic embryo, a human-animal hybrid embryo or a human-animal chimeric embryo into a uterus of a human or an animal"
Permitted and regulated practices
Although the Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology has long prohibited surrogacy in its guidelines, there appears to be no law directly addressing the practice. Recent media coverage of surrogacy has prompted a public discussion. The Supreme Court ruled that the birth mother or birth parents are the legal parents of a child.
The prohibition on providing eggs for reproductive purposes may be under guidelines rather than a law.
PGD is covered by guidelines, not legislation.
- Chisa Fujioka, "Japan's surrogate mothers emerge from shadows," Reuters (March 13, 2008)
- Shigeo Miyagawa, "Report from Japan: Surrogacy Contracts in the Supreme Court of Japan," The Court (May 11, 2007)
- American Society for Reproductive Medicine, "IFFS Surveillance 07," Fertility and Sterility (Vol. 87. No. 4, Suppl. 1, April 2007)
- Genetics and Public Policy Center, "Reproductive Genetic Testing, Guidelines for Genetic Testing (Japan)"