Key laws and policies
- Wet donorgegevens kunstmatige Bevruchting (Act on donor data artificial insemination): http://wetten.overheid.nl/BWBR0013642/geldigheidsdatum_21-01-2015
- Embryowet (Law of 20 June 2002 laying down rules on gametes and embryo - Embryo Act): http://wetten.overheid.nl/BWBR0013797/geldigheidsdatum_21-01-2015
- Act concerning medical research involving human subjects (February 26, 1998)
- Commercial surrogacy: Article 151(b) in the Dutch Criminal Code (See Act of 16 September 1993, Staatsblad 486.)
The Embryos Act prohibits:
- Reproductive cloning
- Inheritable genetic modification
- Social sex selection
- Charging a fee for gametes or embryos above direct costs incurred
- Allowing an embryo to develop outside the human body for longer than 14 days
- Implanting a chimeric embryo into a human or animal, or allowing one to develop longer than 14 days
Commercial surrogacy is generally prohibited by the Dutch Criminal Code.
Permitted and regulated practices
- Donation of embryos left over from fertility treatment for research is permitted under the 2002 Act. Such research "must be of medical importance. If there are alternative methods, they must be used."
Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis
- PGD is only allowed if there is a high risk of a serious genetic disease, but there seems to be a tendency to allow testing for a more extensive range of diseases than in the past.
- Assisted reproduction is permitted and practiced.
- Children have a right to information about their donors.
- Is permitted in strict circumstances
All research programs must be approved by the Central Committee on Research involving Human Subjects (CCMO)."
The creation of embryos for research was prohibited by the 2002 Act for a period of three to five years, after which a decision will be taken on whether to lift the ban so that creating embryos for research purposes may be allowed subject to extremely strict conditions.
European Union, "A comparative study on the regime of surrogacy in EU Member States' European Parliament," manuscript completed in May 2013, available at http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/etudes/join/2013/474403/IPOL-JURI_ET%282013%29474403_EN.pdf, (accessed 22 February 2015).
- "Dutch MPs agree on embryo testing," Radio Netherlands/Expatica, (July 4, 2008).