Key laws and policies
- Act containing rules relating to the use of gametes and embryos (Embryos Act) (July 1, 2002)
- Act concerning medical research involving human subjects (February 26, 1998)
- Commercial Surrogacy Act (November 1, 1993).
The Embryos Act prohibits:
- Reproductive cloning
- Inheritable genetic modification
- Social sex selection
- Charging a fee for gametes or embryos above direct costs incurred
- Allowing an embryo to develop outside the human body for longer than 14 days
- Implanting a chimeric embryo into a human or animal, or allowing one to develop longer than 14 days
Permitted and regulated practices
Donation of embryos left over from fertility treatment for research is permitted under the 2002 Act. Such research "must be of medical importance. If there are alternative methods, they must be used."
Commercial surrogacy is generally prohibited by the Commercial Surrogacy Act. More accurately, the professional mediation and arrangement of surrogacy is prohibited, as opposed to the actual act.
PGD is only allowed if there is a high risk of a serious genetic disease, but there seems to be a tendency to allow testing for a more extensive range of diseases than in the past.
All research programs must be approved by the Central Committee on Research involving Human Subjects (CCMO)."
The creation of embryos for research was prohibited by the 2002 Act for a period of three to five years, "after which a decision will be taken on whether to lift the ban so that creating embryos for research purposes may be allowed subject to extremely strict conditions."
- Frans C. B. van Wijman and Guido M. W. R. de Gert, "Genetics and Artificial Procreation in the Netherlands," in Biomedicine, the Family and Human Rights, Marie Thérèse Meulders-Klein, Ruth Deech, Paul Vlaardingerbroek (Eds.) Springer (2002), pp. 288-289
- Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, "Embryo Act Documentation" (October 24, 2005)
- "Dutch MPs agree on embryo testing," Radio Netherlands / Expatica (July 4, 2008)