Difference between revisions of "Norway"

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|image_flag=Norwayflag.png
 
|image_flag=Norwayflag.png
 
|Region=Europe
 
|Region=Europe
|Population=4,752,735
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|Population=4752735
|GDP=391,498
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|GDP=391498
 
|Eggs for assisted reproduction=PROHIBITED
 
|Eggs for assisted reproduction=PROHIBITED
 
|Eggs for research=PROHIBITED
 
|Eggs for research=PROHIBITED
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|Reproductive cloning=PROHIBITED
 
|Reproductive cloning=PROHIBITED
 
|Research cloning=PROHIBITED
 
|Research cloning=PROHIBITED
|Sex selection=social uses prohibited
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|Sex selection=?
 
|Surrogacy=PROHIBITED
 
|Surrogacy=PROHIBITED
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|European Union=
 
|Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development=Member
 
|Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development=Member
 
|Council of Europe=Member
 
|Council of Europe=Member
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|2005 UNESCO Sports Doping Convention=RATIFIED
 
|2005 UNESCO Sports Doping Convention=RATIFIED
 
|Treaty of Lisbon=n/a
 
|Treaty of Lisbon=n/a
|Key laws and policies=* [http://www.bion.no/lov/Biotechnology_act_MASTER.pdf Act No. 100 on the use of biotechnology in human medicine] (the Biotechnology Law) ([http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-20031205-100.html Lov om humanmedisinsk bruk av bioteknologi m.m. (bioteknologiloven)]) (December 5, 2003)
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|Introduction=
|Foundational values="The purpose of this Act is to ensure that medical applications of biotechnology are utilised for the benefit of everyone in an inclusive society. This shall be done in accordance with the principles of respect for human dignity, human rights and personal integrity and without any discrimination on the basis of genetic constitution, on the basis of the ethical norms that form part of our Western cultural heritage." (Preamble to the Biotechnology Law)
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|Key laws and policies=* Biotechnology Act (2003): http://www.ub.uio.no/ujur/ulovdata/lov-20031205-100-eng.pdf
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* Children’s Act (1981): https://www.regjeringen.no/en/dokumenter/the-children-act/id448389/
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* Adoption Act (1986): https://www.regjeringen.no/en/dokumenter/ACT-OF-28-FEBRUARY-1986-NO-8-RELATING-TO/id443477/
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|Foundational values=Biotechnology Act provides that:
 +
 
 +
"The purpose of this Act is to ensure that medical applications of biotechnology are utilised for the benefit of everyone in an inclusive society. This shall be done in accordance with the principles of respect for human dignity, human rights and personal integrity and without any discrimination on the basis of genetic constitution, on the basis of the ethical norms that form part of our Western cultural heritage." (Preamble to the Biotechnology Law)
 
|Prohibited practices=The Biotechnology Law prohibits:
 
|Prohibited practices=The Biotechnology Law prohibits:
 
* Social sex selection
 
* Social sex selection
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* Gene therapy on fetuses and embryos
 
* Gene therapy on fetuses and embryos
 
* Gene therapy that may involve genetic modification of gametes
 
* Gene therapy that may involve genetic modification of gametes
* Surrogacy<ref name=asrm>American Society for Reproductive Medicine, "[http://www.fertstert.org/issues/contents?issue_key=S0015-0282(07)X0176-6 IFFS Surveillance 07]," ''Fertility and Sterility'' (Vol. 87. No. 4, Suppl. 1, April 2007)</ref><ref name="dooley">Dolores Dooley and Panagiota Dalla-Vorgia, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=Tnu-ZT08hVIC&pg=PA66&lpg=PA66&dq=norway+surrogacy+law+OR+policy&source=web&ots=rFcvgMSUwa&sig=coo3o-Vf2-k4elmY9KlinaTsBvo&hl=en Ethics of New Reproductive Technologies: Cases and Questions]'' Berghahn Books (2003), p. 66</ref><ref name=Eriksson>Maja Kirilova Eriksson, ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=GQk_1f7C5BwC&pg=PA208&lpg=PA208&dq=norway+surrogacy+law+OR+policy&source=web&ots=PYNoyHUoD_&sig=He8Exp9mF1i6L-VMWwDZHGXkPZM&hl=en Reproductive Freedom: In the Context of International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law]'', Martinus Nijhoff Publishers (1999), p. 208</ref>
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* Surrogacy
|Permitted and regulated practices=PGD is not illegal (in the special case of serious sex-linked hereditary diseases for which no treatment is available), but not used.<ref name=asrm/>
+
 
 +
(NB -  
 +
* Donated eggs or embryos may not be used (but one’s own eggs or embryo may be preserved and used)
 +
* Surrogacy is prohibited as a result of the prohibition on egg and embryo donation.  
 +
* Additionally, only couples may access IVF, so no artificial insemination of a surrogate is possible.  
 +
* In addition, an agreement to bear a child for another person and then hand that child over, is not enforceable.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
|Permitted and regulated practices=ASSISTED REPRODUCTION
 +
 
 +
* ART is available to couples living together in a stable relationship. Marriage or heterosexuality is not required.
 +
 
 +
SPERM DONATION
 +
 
 +
* Sperm donation is permitted
 +
* Donor conceived children may access information about the donor at age 18.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
PRE-IMPLANTATION GENETIC DIAGNOSIS
 +
 
 +
* PGD is not illegal (in the special case of serious sex-linked hereditary diseases for which no treatment is available), but not used.<ref name=asrm/>
 
|Regulatory activities=The Biotechnology Law requires registration of research establishments, authorizes the [http://www.regjeringen.no/en/topics/Health-and-care.html?id=917 Ministry of Health and Care Services] to issue further regulations, and established the [http://bioteknologinemnda.no/index_eng.shtml Norwegian Biotechnology Advisory Board]. The [http://www.helsetilsynet.no/templates/sectionpage____5499.aspx Norwegian Board of Health] supervises the medical use of biotechnology.
 
|Regulatory activities=The Biotechnology Law requires registration of research establishments, authorizes the [http://www.regjeringen.no/en/topics/Health-and-care.html?id=917 Ministry of Health and Care Services] to issue further regulations, and established the [http://bioteknologinemnda.no/index_eng.shtml Norwegian Biotechnology Advisory Board]. The [http://www.helsetilsynet.no/templates/sectionpage____5499.aspx Norwegian Board of Health] supervises the medical use of biotechnology.
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|Accountability and governance=
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|History=
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|External links=The Ministry of Children, Equality and Social Inclusion has clarified the current law - the Children Act's and the Adoption Act's provisions on parentage in respect of international surrogacy: See statement here:
 +
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https://www.regjeringen.no/en/dokumenter/commission-on-paternity-nou-2009-5/id576775/?regj_oss=10
 
}}
 
}}
 
== References ==
 
== References ==
 
<references/>
 
<references/>

Revision as of 04:06, 22 February 2015

Norway
Norwayflag.png
Information
Region Europe
Population 4752735
GDP (millions USD) 391498
National Policies
Eggs for assisted reproduction PROHIBITED
Eggs for research PROHIBITED
Inheritable genetic modification PROHIBITED
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis social uses prohibited
Reproductive cloning PROHIBITED
Research cloning PROHIBITED
Sex selection ?
Surrogacy PROHIBITED
International Agreements
1997 COE Biomedicine Convention RATIFIED
1998 COE Cloning Convention signed
2005 UN Cloning Vote no
2005 UNESCO Sports Doping Convention RATIFIED


Contents

Key laws and policies

Foundational values

Biotechnology Act provides that:

"The purpose of this Act is to ensure that medical applications of biotechnology are utilised for the benefit of everyone in an inclusive society. This shall be done in accordance with the principles of respect for human dignity, human rights and personal integrity and without any discrimination on the basis of genetic constitution, on the basis of the ethical norms that form part of our Western cultural heritage." (Preamble to the Biotechnology Law)

Prohibited practices

The Biotechnology Law prohibits:

  • Social sex selection
  • Genetic modification of embryos
  • Donation of eggs or sperm
  • Research on fertilised eggs, human embryos and cell lines derived from fertilised eggs or human embryos
  • Reproductive cloning
  • Research cloning
  • Gene therapy on fetuses and embryos
  • Gene therapy that may involve genetic modification of gametes
  • Surrogacy

(NB -

  • Donated eggs or embryos may not be used (but one’s own eggs or embryo may be preserved and used)
  • Surrogacy is prohibited as a result of the prohibition on egg and embryo donation.
  • Additionally, only couples may access IVF, so no artificial insemination of a surrogate is possible.
  • In addition, an agreement to bear a child for another person and then hand that child over, is not enforceable.

Permitted and regulated practices

ASSISTED REPRODUCTION

  • ART is available to couples living together in a stable relationship. Marriage or heterosexuality is not required.

SPERM DONATION

  • Sperm donation is permitted
  • Donor conceived children may access information about the donor at age 18.


PRE-IMPLANTATION GENETIC DIAGNOSIS

  • PGD is not illegal (in the special case of serious sex-linked hereditary diseases for which no treatment is available), but not used.[1]

Regulatory activities

The Biotechnology Law requires registration of research establishments, authorizes the Ministry of Health and Care Services to issue further regulations, and established the Norwegian Biotechnology Advisory Board. The Norwegian Board of Health supervises the medical use of biotechnology.


External links

The Ministry of Children, Equality and Social Inclusion has clarified the current law - the Children Act's and the Adoption Act's provisions on parentage in respect of international surrogacy: See statement here:

https://www.regjeringen.no/en/dokumenter/commission-on-paternity-nou-2009-5/id576775/?regj_oss=10

References

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named asrm