Preimplantation genetic diagnosis

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Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is a procedure allowing embryos created through in vitro fertilization to be tested for the presence or absence of particular genes, so that embryos with preferred genes can be used to initiate a pregnancy. PGD was developed to allow couples at risk of passing on a serious genetic disease to have children free of the disease. Since its introduction in 1990, it has been most widely used to prevent the birth of children with conditions such as Down's syndrome, Tay-Sachs disease, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell, and Huntington's chorea.

However, PGD can be used to select for non-disease, or “social,” conditions as well. Some people have chosen the sex of their child through use of PGD. It is currently difficult to apply PGD to most traits which depend on more that one gene or chromosome, but new technologies could make this easier.

Some countries prohibit all use of PGD. Others allow it but restrict it to non-social conditions. Many countries have no national-level laws or policies addressing PGD, and in some of these PGD is available for non-social use, most typically for sex-selection.

[edit] Table: National policies

The Table shows policies currently in effect regarding the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

[edit] Key

  • PROHIBITED: This practice is prohibited by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • allowed: This practice is allowed by national law or policies having the force of law, but social uses are not prohibited.
  • social uses prohibited: Social (or nonmedical) use of this practice is prohibited by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • no policy: This practice is not addressed by national law or policies having the force of law.
  • ?: It is unknown whether this practice is addressed by national law or policies having the force of law.

Note: The categories defined in the key and used in the table characterize the polices in any given country in a broad manner. Consult the page for each country for more detailed accounts of current policies.

You can click the icon in any column heading to sort by that column. To sort the other direction, click it again.

  Region Preimplantation genetic diagnosis
Afghanistan Asia ?
Albania Europe ?
Algeria Africa ?
Andorra Europe ?
Angola Africa ?
Antigua and Barbuda Latin America ?
Argentina Latin America no policy
Armenia Asia ?
Australia Oceania social uses prohibited
Austria Europe PROHIBITED
Azerbaijan Asia ?
Bahamas Latin America ?
Bahrain Asia social uses prohibited
Bangladesh Asia ?
Barbados Latin America ?
Belarus Europe social uses prohibited
Belgium Europe social uses prohibited
Belize Latin America ?
Benin Africa ?
Bhutan Asia ?
Bolivia Latin America ?
Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe social uses prohibited
Botswana Africa ?
Brazil Latin America no policy
Brunei Asia ?
Bulgaria Europe social uses prohibited
Burkina Faso Africa ?
Burundi Africa ?
Cambodia Asia ?
Cameroon Africa ?
Canada Northern America social uses prohibited
Cape Verde Africa ?
Central African Republic Africa ?
Chad Africa ?
Chile Latin America no policy
China Asia social uses prohibited
Colombia Latin America no policy
Comoros Africa ?
Cook Islands Oceania ?
Costa Rica Latin America ?
Croatia Europe social uses prohibited
Cuba Latin America social uses prohibited
Cyprus Asia social uses prohibited
Czech Republic Europe social uses prohibited
Côte d'Ivoire Africa ?
Democratic Republic of the Congo Africa ?
Denmark Europe social uses prohibited
Djibouti Africa ?
Dominica Latin America ?
Dominican Republic Latin America ?
Ecuador Latin America ?
Egypt Africa social uses prohibited
El Salvador Latin America ?
Equatorial Guinea Africa ?
Eritrea Africa ?
Estonia Europe social uses prohibited
Ethiopia Africa ?
Fiji Oceania ?
Finland Europe social uses prohibited
France Europe social uses prohibited
Gabon Africa ?
Gambia Africa ?
Georgia Asia social uses prohibited
Germany Europe social uses prohibited
Ghana Africa ?
Greece Europe social uses prohibited
Grenada Latin America ?
Guatemala Latin America ?
Guinea Africa ?
Guinea-Bissau Africa ?
Guyana Latin America ?
Haiti Latin America ?
Honduras Latin America ?
Hong Kong Asia ?
Hungary Europe social uses prohibited
Iceland Europe social uses prohibited
India Asia social uses prohibited
Indonesia Asia ?
Iran Asia ?
Iraq Asia ?
Ireland Europe ?
Israel Asia social uses prohibited
Italy Europe social uses prohibited
Jamaica Latin America no policy
Japan Asia no policy
Jordan Asia no policy
Kazakhstan Asia ?
Kenya Africa ?
Kiribati Oceania ?
Kosovo Asia ?
Kuwait Asia ?
Kyrgyzstan Asia ?
Laos Asia ?
Latvia Europe social uses prohibited
Lebanon Asia social uses prohibited
Lesotho Africa ?
Liberia Africa ?
Libya Africa ?
Liechtenstein Europe ?
Lithuania Europe PROHIBITED
Luxembourg Europe ?
Macedonia Europe ?
Madagascar Africa ?
Malawi Africa ?
Malaysia Asia no policy
Maldives Asia ?
Mali Africa ?
Malta Europe ?
Marshall Islands Oceania ?
Mauritania Africa ?
Mauritius Africa ?
Mexico Latin America no policy
Micronesia Oceania ?
Moldova Europe social uses prohibited
Monaco Europe ?
Mongolia Asia ?
Montenegro Europe social uses prohibited
Morocco Africa no policy
Mozambique Africa ?
Myanmar Asia ?
Namibia Africa ?
Nauru Oceania ?
Nepal Asia ?
Netherlands Europe social uses prohibited
New Zealand Oceania social uses prohibited
Nicaragua Latin America ?
Niger Africa ?
Nigeria Africa ?
North Korea Asia ?
Norway Europe social uses prohibited
Oman Asia ?
Pakistan Asia ?
Palau Oceania ?
Palestine Asia ?
Panama Latin America ?
Papua New Guinea Oceania ?
Paraguay Latin America ?
Peru Latin America no policy
Philippines Asia ?
Poland Europe ?
Portugal Europe social uses prohibited
Qatar Asia ?
Republic of the Congo Africa ?
Romania Europe social uses prohibited
Russia Europe social uses prohibited
Rwanda Africa ?
Saint Kitts and Nevis Latin America ?
Saint Lucia Latin America ?
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Latin America ?
Samoa Oceania ?
San Marino Europe social uses prohibited
Saudi Arabia Asia social uses prohibited
Senegal Africa ?
Serbia Europe ?
Seychelles Africa ?
Sierra Leone Africa ?
Singapore Asia social uses prohibited
Slovakia Europe social uses prohibited
Slovenia Europe social uses prohibited
Solomon Islands Oceania ?
Somalia Africa ?
South Africa Africa social uses prohibited
South Korea Asia social uses prohibited
South Sudan Africa ?
Spain Europe social uses prohibited
Sri Lanka Asia ?
Sudan Africa ?
Suriname Latin America ?
Swaziland Africa ?
Sweden Europe social uses prohibited
Switzerland Europe PROHIBITED
Syria Asia ?
São Tomé and Príncipe Africa ?
Taiwan Asia ?
Tajikistan Asia ?
Tanzania Africa ?
Thailand Asia social uses prohibited
Timor-Leste Asia ?
Togo Africa ?
Tonga Oceania ?
Trinidad and Tobago Latin America ?
Tunisia Africa social uses prohibited
Turkey Asia social uses prohibited
Turkmenistan Asia ?
Tuvalu Oceania ?
Uganda Africa ?
Ukraine Europe ?
United Arab Emirates Asia social uses prohibited
United Kingdom Europe social uses prohibited
United States
Uruguay Latin America no policy
Uzbekistan Asia ?
Vanuatu Oceania ?
Venezuela Latin America no policy
Vietnam Asia ?
Yemen Africa social uses prohibited
Zambia Africa ?
Zimbabwe Africa ?